Scientific Guidelines for Designing Resilient- in a Changing Climate Marine Protected Area Networks in a Changing Climate

Climate change, resulting from both
natural and anthropogenic factors, is
expected to affect virtually every aspect
of marine ecosystem structure
and function from community composition
and biogeochemical cycling,
to the prevalence of diseases. Climate
can affect all life-history stages
through direct and indirect processes
and the possible effects of climate
change for marine populations include
changes in population dynamics
(body size, reproduction), community
composition and geographical

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