Community-based management of near-shore fisheries in vanuatu: what works?
In the Paciﬁ c, coastal communi ties have compe nsated fo r chronica lly low capacity of gover nment s to
manag e ﬁsher ies by impleme nting local regulat ions in their marine tenu re ar eas. In order to investiga te
the perf orma nce of communi ty-bas ed ﬁsher ies manag ement (CBFM ) in Vanuatu , traje ctories and
facto rs of change in CBFM systems since the 1990 s were analy sed. Focal group interview s we re
conduct ed in seven village s on Efate´ isla nd in 2011 and supp lement ed by a review of supp orting
literat ure. Resu lts re veal the increasing and exce ssive relian ce of CBFM syst ems on externa l agencies
that promot ed ove rly complex m anageme nt plans. Examina tion of tren ds in CBFM s ystems s hows that
commu nity and nation al ﬁshin g rules that were highl y acceptab le by local societie s were more like ly to
be enf orced in the lo ng ru n. In part icular, th e establ ishme nt of m arine reser ves was the m ost
wide spread and best enfo rced commu nity ru le for the pu rposes of conserv ation, ecotour ism, and/o r
ﬁsher ies. Overall , the results chal lenge th e curre nt effe ctivene ss of CB FM in achi eving sustainab ility of
reef ﬁsherie s in Vanua tu, and highl ight the ove r-relia nce on small mar ine reserve s as a m anageme nt
tool. Commu nity initiat ives must be strength ened by new speciﬁc nation al regulatio ns governi ng
subsi stence and comme rcial re ef ﬁsherie s as part of a multi- scale co-manag ement approa ch.