Glossary beginning with M

Click one of the letters above to go to the page of all terms beginning with that letter.



A potentially fatal mosquito born disease caused by parasites.

Marginal cost

The cost on one additional unit of effort. In terms of reducing emissions, it represents the cost of reducing emissions by one more unit.

Marginal Cost Pricing

The pricing of commercial goods and services such that the price equals the additional cost that arises from the expansion of production by one additional unit.

Marine Management

The practice of analysing, making and implementing decisions to maintain or alter any area of the marine environment or marine resource. It is often aimed at balancing natural or cultural resource use and conservation.

Marine Pollution

Pollution of oceans, lakes or rivers Êresulting from the discharge of hydrocarbons (often petroleum or crude oil), chemicals or other potentially harmful matter from tanks, tankers or pipelines during transportation or storage.

Market Barriers

Conditions that prevent or impede the diffusion of cost-effective technologies or practices that could mitigate GHG emissions.


Actions that can be taken by a government or a group of governments, often in conjunction with the private sector, to accelerate the use of technologies or other practices that reduce GHG emissions.

Memorandum Of Understanding

A bilateral or multilateral agreement between two or more parties.


The study of the physics, chemistry, and dynamics of the atmosphere and the direct effects of the atmosphere upon the Earth's surface, the oceans, and life in general.


A hydrocarbon that is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential estimated at 21. Methane is produced through anaerobic (without oxygen) decomposition of waste in landfills, animal digestion, decomposition of animal wastes, production and distribution of natural gas and petroleum, coal production, and incomplete fossil fuel combustion.

Mid Term Review Reforms

A set of reforms of the EUÕs Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) adopted by the EU Council of Ministers in 2003. These reforms aim to strengthen links between European agriculture and global markets, prepare for EU enlargement, improve societyÕs capacity to meet demands regarding conservation of the environment and product quality, and make the CAP more compatible with the demands of third countries.

Ministry for Primary Industries (NZ)

A New Zealand government ministry focused on growing the success of its national primary sectors. It focuses on maximising export opportunities, improving sector productivity, increasing sustainable resource use, and protecting the primary sector from biological risk.

Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (NZ)Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management

A central New Zealand government agency responsible for emergency management. The ministry provides policy advice to government, supports community disaster risk management planning and operations, ensures there is coordination at local, regional and national levels, and manages the central government response for large scale civil defence emergencies that are beyond the capacity of local authorities.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (NZ)

The public service department of New Zealand charged with advising the government on foreign and trade policy , and promoting New ZealandÕs interests in trade and international relations.


Structural and non-structural measures undertaken to eliminate or limit the adverse impact of hazards .


Observation, measurement and valuation of progress in order to identify change.

Monitoring and Early Warning Systems

Monitoring -Observation, measurement and valuation of progress in order to identify change. Early Warning -The provision of timely and effective information, through identified and authoritative institutions, that allows action to be takenbefore an event.


Measurable, reportable and verifiable. A process/concept that potentially supports greater transparency in the climate change regime.

Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency

A member of the World Bank Group, MIGA is an international financial institution which offers political risk insurance and credit enhancement guarantees. It aims to promote foreign direct investment into developing countries to help support economic growth and reduce poverty.

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